Coronavirus: What are the symptoms of Covid-19?

So you’re not feeling well, and afraid you might be infected with the new coronavirus disease, Covid-19. Given that the United States is now beginning to test widely for the disease, and cases are popping up, that might be a reasonable suspicion.

In the US, cases have been reported in Washington State, New York, Georgia, and Florida. Six people have died from the illness in the US so far.

Nonetheless, the overall risk to the general public from Covid-19 is still low, according to top officials at the Health and Human Services Department. Most people are unlikely to become infected. Even in Wuhan, China, where the outbreak originated, less than 1 percent of the population has reported infections. And of those infected, the vast majority are expected to recover.

Still, you may have been exposed if you have traveled to a region with novel coronavirus transmission or if you’ve been in close contact with someone who has Covid-19.

A doctor stands in front of two 3D-reconstructed lung models of a newly diagnosed coronavirus pneumonia patient at a hospital in Kunming, Yunnan Province, China on March 2, 2020.
Kang Ping/China News Service via Getty Images

Here are some signs you may have the illness:

The World Health Organization, fresh from a mission to China, where cases are finally declining, reports the illness can present in different ways, ranging from no symptoms at all to severe pneumonia.

Some symptoms are more frequently seen than others. Based on confirmed cases, the WHO says 88 percent of infected people experienced a fever and 67.7 percent had a dry cough. Less frequent symptoms include mucus (33.4 percent), shortness of breath (18.6 percent), sore throat (13.9 percent), and headache (13.6 percent).

“Covid-19 disease usually begins with mild fever, dry cough, sore throat and malaise,” writes Megan Murray, a professor of epidemiology at Harvard Medical School, in an FAQ for the Abundance Foundation. “Unlike the coronavirus infections that cause the common cold, it is not usually associated with a runny nose.”

These symptoms emerge five or six days after infection on average, but can show up in as little as a day or as much as two weeks after exposure.

If you have any of these symptoms, what should you do?

People in one of the high-risk groups — those who are over 60 years old, diabetic, hypertensive, have preexisting breathing problems, or are being treated for cancer — should seek immediate medical treatment. And let your health care provider know before you get there that you suspect that you may have Covid-19. That way, the clinic can take appropriate precautions for your visit.

If you’re not in a high-risk group and have mild or severe symptoms, you should also call a health professional — a doctor, a nurse, or a public health official. They will work with your local health department and figure out whether you need to get tested or get treatment.

Doctors and health officials advise not to go to the emergency room if your symptoms do not appear to be life-threatening.

Also, don’t panic. Most people who get infected get better, often on their own with just rest, fluids, and fever medication. If you are advised to stay home, there are several other measures you should take, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

The most important step is to avoid exposing other people to the illness. That means staying home from school or work, avoiding public transit or rideshares, and separating yourself from the people and animals in your home. It also means avoiding sharing household items like towels, dishes, and bedding.

Cover your coughs and sneezes with a tissue over your mouth and nose. Wash your hands often with soap and water for at least 20 seconds. Clean the surfaces in your home that you come in contact with regularly, like counters, doorknobs, bedside tables, keyboards, and phones. “It is possible that some of the viral particles … end up on surfaces (door handles, subway poles, coins) where they might remain viable,” Murray writes.

When leaving your home, wear a surgical facemask to avoid spreading the virus — if you’re sick. Health officials say that masks do little to protect the wearer if they aren’t infected. Officials are also urging the public not to buy N95 masks because they are needed by health workers and are in short supply.

All the while, pay close attention to your symptoms. Call your health care provider if your symptoms get worse. And if you have a health emergency and need to call 911, let the dispatcher know that you may have Covid-19 so responders can prepare.

These steps may seem tedious but remember that they serve not just to protect yourself, but to protect the people around you. Controlling an outbreak is everyone’s job.

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